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- A -
Abatti
Alexander
Alma-Tadema
Ancher
Asai Chu
- B -
Backer
Bandinni
Bartlett
Bassano
Bazille
Beal
Bellows
Benoist
Benson
Berckheyde
Bernard
Beruete
Bichall
Bierstadt
Blarenberghe
Boldini
Bonnard
Borch
Bosch
Botticelli
Bouguereau
Braun
Breck
Brett
Bricher
Brouwer
Brown
Bruce
Bruegel
Bunker
Burne-Jones
- C -
Cabanel
Canaletto
Caravaggio
Cassat
Cezanne
Chadwick
Champaigne
Chardin
Chase
Cherubino
Church
Claesz
Clausen
Corot
Cozzens
Cropsey
Cullen
Cooper
Cuyp
- D -
David Louis
Daubigny
Dawson
De Witte
Degas
De Heem
De Hooch
Delacroix
Dewing
De La Porte
De Morgan
De Nittis
Dou
Durand
Durer
- E -
Eakins
El Greco
Elgood
Enneking
Everett Millais
Eysen
- F -
Fabritius
Fattory
Fitzpatrick
Flinck
Fox
Fra Angelico
Fragonard
Friedrich
Frieseke
- G -
Garber
Gauguin
Ghirlandaio
Gigante
Giorgione
Giotto
Glackens
Godward
Gothart
Goya
Grabar
Granet
Grimshaw
Guzman
- H -
Hale
Hals
Harnett
Harris
Hassam
Hemy
Hollman
Holt
Homer
Hughes
Hunt
- I -
Inchbold
Ingres
Inness
- J -
Jansz
Jaede
Johnson
Jordaens
- K -
Kalckreuth
Kandinsky
Kensett
Kielland
Klee
Klimt
Konstantinova
Korovin
Krafft
Kroyer
Kuindzhi
- L -
La Farge
Larsson
La Thangue
La Tour
Langshaw
Lawrence
Lawson
Le Brun
Leighton
Le Nain
Leonardo
Le Sueur
Levitan
Libermann
Lievens
Lippi
Lorrain
Lumis
- M -
Macs
Manet
Margetson
Magritte
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Matisse
McKay
Melchers
Melendez
Metcalf
Metsu
Michelangelo
Miller
Millet
Mitchell
Molenaer
Modigliani
Mondrian
Monet
Moore
Moran
Morisot
Morris
Muddle
Muir
Munch
Murillo
- N -
Naojiro
Nordstrom
- O -
Ochtervelt
Ostade
- P -
Palizzi
Parrish
Parsons
Paxton
Perugino
Petersen
Peto
Pissarro
Pocock
Potthast
Poussin
Prendergast
- R -
Raphael
Regoyos
Reid
Rembrandt
Remington
Renault
Renoir
Richards
Riviere
Roberts
Robinson
Rossetti
Rousseau
Roux
Rowe
Rubens
Russell
Ruterdahl
Rysselberghe
- S -
Sandys
Sargent
Schedone
Schjerfbeck
Scott
Seiki
Sernessi
Serusier
Seurat
Sherrin
Signac
Signorini
Sisley
Somerscales
Sorolla
Spada
Spiers
Steffan
Stephens
Stoskopff
Strachan
Streeton
Strindberg
Stubbs
Suzor-Cote
- T -
Tarbell
Teniers
Ter Brugghen
Thaulow
Tiepolo
Tissot
Titian
Toororp
Toulouse
Tournier
Turner
Turner Helen
Twachtman
- U -
Ury
- V -
Valencia
Van De Velde
Van Dyck
Van Gogh
Van Mieris
Velazquez
Vermeer
Veronese
Von Honthorst
Vonnoh
Von Weding
Verspronck
Vuillard
- W -
Wallis
Warren
Waterhouse
Watson
Watteau
Watts
Weenix
Weir
Wendel
Weyden
Whiles
White
Whittredge
Whistler
Wilhelmson
Wisinger
Wylie Ship
- Z -
Zurbaran



Christian Art
(Giclee prints & oil reproductions)


Early Christian Art and architecture works of art exhibiting Christian art themes and structures designed for Christian worship created relatively soon after the death of Jesus. Most date from the 4th to the 6th cent. A.D. See also Christian iconography under iconography.

Earliest Christian Art Works
Little is known about Christian art in the first two centuries after the death of Jesus. Among the earliest manifestations extant are the early 3d-century paintings on the walls of the catacombs in Rome. Whereas the style resembles that of secular Roman wall painting, the subject matter consists mainly of biblical figures. Jonah, Daniel, and Susanna appear in scenes of miracles through divine intervention. Among the motifs that symbolized the hope of resurrection and immortality are the fish and the peacock. Following the official recognition of Christianity after the Edict of Toleration (313), the scope of Early Christian art was radically enlarged.

Mosaics and Manuscript Illumination
Elaborate mosaic narrative cycles covered the upper walls, triumphal arch, and apse of basilican churches (see basilica. Some are preserved in Santa Maria Maggiore and Santa Pudenziana in Rome and SantíApollinare Nuovo in Ravenna. The use of gold backgrounds heightens the effect of otherworldliness and transcendence. Christian art in contrast to paganism, the Christian faith was bound by the authority of sacred writings, and it placed increasing importance on the production of books and their illumination. Some fragments of the biblical text, written in silver and gold on purple vellum and sumptuously illuminated, are still preserved (see illumination). Foremost of these is the Vienna Genesis, a manuscript of the first half of the 6th cent.

Sculpture in christian art
The sculpture of the stone sarcophagus was extensively practiced in Roman art and was continued into the Christian art era. In some cases subjects similar to those of the catacombs were used. In others, scenes of the life of Jesus or more ceremonious compositions were created, showing the enthroned Christ receiving the homage of the apostles. In addition, ivory carvers decorated book covers and reliquary caskets or larger objects, such as the throne of Maximianus in Ravenna, a work of the 6th cent.

Architecture in christian art
Before the legal recognition of the new faith in the early 4th cent., Christian places of worship were of necessity inconspicuous and had no fixed architectural form. Afterward, however, imposing cult edifices were erected in many parts of the Roman Empire, especially in its major cities, Rome, Constantinople, Milan, Antioch, and Ravenna. Early Christian art builders adapted structures that had long been used in the Hellenistic and Roman worlds. The basilican hall, consisting of a nave flanked by lower aisles and terminated by an apse, was adopted as the standard structure in Christian congregational worship. SantíApollinare Nuovo in Ravenna and Santa Sabina in Rome still survive as largely unaltered examples of this type.

In Early Christian art architecture a distinct emphasis was placed on the centralized plan, which was of round, polygonal, or cruciform shape. Baptisteries and memorial shrines (martyria) were based on the traditionally centralized Roman funerary monument. Martyria were erected on sites connected with certain events in the life of Jesus and other places held to be sanctified by the sacrifice of the martyrs. In such buildings as Saint Peterís in Rome and the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, the martyrium structure and basilica were combined, creating a new formal synthesis of great significance for the religious architecture of the medieval period.

Eastern Traditions in christian art
A distinct type of Christian art and architecture was evolved in Egypt (see Coptic art). In the eastern part of the Roman Empire the development of the Early Christian art tradition was continued under the auspices of the Byzantine emperors (see Byzantine art and architecture).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001-05 Columbia University Press.

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